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英语语法专题91:副词的种类,一张图看全部!

小学资讯 adm1n 2020-03-26 17:04:47 查看评论 加入收藏
  本次英语语法专题我们学习“副词的种类”,具体内容如下:
英语学习
  一、副词的种类
  副词大体上可以分为下面几类:


  二、时间副词
  时间副词分为三类:表示发生时间的副词、表示频繁程度的副词和其他时间副词。
  (一)表示发生时间的副词
  Now现在
  Then那时
  Just now刚才
  Right now此时
  Right then就在那时
  Right away立刻
  Today今天
  Before以前
  Tomorrow明天
  Soon很快
  Ago以前
  例句:I taught you to swim and nowyou'd drown me.
  以怨报德。
  例句:I have heard from her recently.
  我最近收到了他的来信。
  例句:Have you got anything on tonight?
  今晚有事吗?
  (二)表示频繁程度的副词
  Always 总是
  Constantly 经常地
  Continually 持续不断地
  Ever 曾经
  Frequently 频繁地
  Never 从不
  Regularly 定期地
  Occasionally 偶尔
  Often 经常
  Rarely 很少地
  Repeatedly 重复不断地
  Seldom 很少,不常
  Sometimes 有时
  Usually 通常
  Now and then 时不时
  例句:We do write to each other now and then,but not regularly.
  我们确实偶尔通信,但不经常。
  例句:The love of money and the love of learning rarelymeet.
  贪财者不勤学,勤学者不贪财。
  (三)其他时间副词
  Already 已经
  Early 早,初期
  Finally 最后
  Immediately 立刻
  Lately 最近
  Late 晚,迟
  First 首先
  Long 很长时间地
  Presently 目前
  Shortly 不久
  Since 自那以来
  例句:I'll be back shortly/ presently.
  我一会儿就回来。
  例句:A man among children will be longa child,a child among men will be soon a man.
  成人和儿童在一起童心常驻,儿童和成人在一起少年老成。
  例句:When you finallygo back to your old hometown,you find it wasn't the old home you missed but your childhood.
  三、地点副词
  1)表示地点和位置的副词称为地点副词
  Abroad在国外
  Ahead在前面
  Away在远处
  Ashore在岸上
  Back在后面
  Down在下边
  Downstairs在楼下
  Downtown在市区
  Eastward向东
  Anywhere任何地方
  Everywhere到处
  Far在远处
  Here这里
  In在里边
  Indoors在室内
  There在那边
  Outdoors在户外
  Outside在外边
  Overseas在海边
  Overhead在头顶上
  Inside在里边
  Underfoot在脚底
  Upstairs在楼上
  Westward向西
  例句:She is upstairstalking with my parents.
  她正在楼上和我父母谈话。
  例句:An ambassador is an honest man sent to lie abroadfor his country.
  大使是被派往外国为自己的国家而说谎的诚实的人。
  例句:Somewherein the world there is defeat for everyone.Some are destroyed by defeat,and some made small and mean by victory.Greatness lives in one who triumphs equally over defeat and victory.
  在世界的某个地方,每个人都会有失败。有的人因失败所毁,有的人因成功变得小气吝啬。同时战胜失败与成功的人才是了不起的人。
  2)由where构成的副词也是地点副词
  例句:There are people who want to be everywhereat once and they seem to get nowhere.
  有这样一些人:他们想马上去每一个地方,但看起来哪儿也没去。
  例句:If she doesn't like it here,she can go elsewhere.
  如果她不喜欢这里,她可以去别的地方。
  例句:Even the weariest river winds somewheresafe to sea.
  即使是最疲惫的河流,历经曲折,也终会安然入海。
  例句:Nowhere can we find this kind of plant.
  任何地方都找不到这种植物。
  3)还有一些与介词同形的副词,有人称它们为副词小品词
  这些副词与介词同形,跟宾语的为介词,否则是副词:
  例句对比1:A cat climbed upthe tree.
  猫爬上了树。(用作介词)


  A tiny green plant knows that it must look upto live.
  弱小的绿色植物也知道努力向上求生存。(用作副词)
  例句对比2:No man is above the law and no man is belowit.
  没有人能凌驾于法律之上,人不受法律保护。(用作介词)
  He who would search for pearls must dive below.
  想得到珍珠的人必须潜入水底。
  这类副词主要有:
  Aboard
  About
  Above
  Across
  Along
  Around
  Behind
  Below
  Beneath
  Beyond
  Down
  In
  Inside
  Near
  Off
  On
  Out
  Outside
  Over
  Past
  Round
  Throughout
  Underneath
  Up
  4)还有一些地点副词表示地区范围等
  例句:We have no shops locally.
  我们在本地没有商店。
  例句:Fortunately the news was not yet spread widely.
  所幸这消息还没有四处传开。
  例句:The theory has been universallyaccepted.
  这个理论已被普遍接受。
  常见的这类副词有:
  Globally
  Internationally
  Locally
  Nationally
  Nationwide
  Universally
  Widely
  worldwide
  四、方式副词
  描述事情或情况的进行方式、存在方式、情绪、动作发生的情况或其细节的副词称为方式副词。方式副词主要用来回答how提出的问题。
  1)一些常见的方式副词
  例句:These countries were ruthlesslyinvaded.
  这些国家遭到残暴的侵略。
  例句:They hoped to see the problem settled peacefully.
  他们希望看到这问题和平解决。
  例句:Men show their character in nothing more clearlythan by what they think laughable.
  从一个人觉得什么可笑最能看清楚他的个性。
  例句:This means that effectivelywe have no chance of finishing on time.
  这意味着我们实际上不可能准时完成。
  下面是一些常见的这类副词:
  Abruptly
  Accurately
  Awkwardly
  Badly
  Beautifully
  Casually
  Clearly
  Closely
  Clumsily
  Comfortably
  Evenly
  Explicitly
  Dramatically
  Effectively
  Efficiently
  Finely
  Firmly
  Fluently
  Formally
  Frankly
  Freely
  Gently
  Gracefully
  Hastily
  Heavily
  Perfectly
  Plainly
  Pleasantly
  Politely
  Poorly
  Professionally
  Properly
  Quietly
  Rapidly
  Readily
  Steadily
  Strangely
  Subtly
  Superbly
  Swiftly
  Systematically
  Tenderly
  Thoroughly
  Thoughtfully
  Tightly
  2)还有相当多的副词,表示某些情绪
  例句:I wouldn't gladlygo through that unpleasant experience again.
  我再也不想领教那种令人不快的经历了。
  例句:He shook hands eagerlywith Sherlock Holmes.
  他热切地与夏洛克·福尔摩斯握手。


  例句:I offered help,and she accepted gratefully.
  我主动提出帮助,她感激地接受了。
  下面是一些常见的这类副词:
  Angrily
  Anxiously
  Bitterly
  Boldly
  Calmly
  Cheerfully
  Confidently
  Desperately
  Eagerly
  Excitedly
  Furiously
  Gladly
  Gloomily
  Gratefully
  Happily
  Helplessly
  Hopefully
  Hopelessly
  Impatiently
  Miserably
  Nervously
  Passionately
  Proudly
  Reluctantly
  Sadly
  Shyly
  Sincerely
  Uncomfortably
  Uneasily
  Wearily
  3)还有一些以-ly结尾的副词,表示动作发生的情况
  例句:There is no man so bad,but he secretly respects the good.
  再坏的人都会暗自敬重好人。
  例句:The process was controlled automatically.
  生产工序是自动控制的。
  常见的这类副词有:
  Accidentally
  Artificially
  Automatically
  Collectively
  Deliberately
  Directly
  Duly
  Illegally
  Independently
  Indirectly
  Individually
  Innocently
  Instinctively
  Involuntarily
  Jointly
  Legally
  Logically
  Mechanically
  Naturally
  Officially
  Openly
  Overtly
  Personally
  Politically
  Privately
  Publicly
  Scientifically
  Secretly
  Specially
  Symbolically
  4)大部分方式副词都由形容词加-ly构成,但有少数不带-ly结尾
  例句:Laugh and the world laugh with you;weep and you weep alone.
  笑,全世界和你一起笑;哭,你独自一个人哭。
  例句:She was to fly solothe next day.
  第二天她将作单人飞行。
  例句:Do you sell wholesaleor retail ?
  你是批发还是零售?
  五、程度副词和强调副词
  (一)程度副词
  1)用来描述动作、行为或状态的程度的副词称为程度副词
  例句:Truth is a fruit which should not be picked until it is quiteripe.
  真理是一枚果实,应该到成熟时再采摘。
  例句:He who gives himself entirelyto his fellowmen appears to them useless and selfish;but he who gives himself partially to them is pronounced a benefactor and philanthropist.
  一个人如果自己毫无保留地奉献给别人,那么在别人眼中他常显得无用甚至自私,而如果他只奉献一部分的话,别人倒是觉得他慷慨大方、乐施好善。
  这类副词除修饰动词外,还可修饰形容词或另一副词:
  ①Fairly simple相当简单
  Rather difficult相当难
  Awfully sorry非常抱歉
  Perfectly clear十分清楚
  Highly confidential高度机密的
  Quite correct完全正确
  Utterly unreasonable极不合理
  Truly grateful确实很感激
  ②Fairly smoothly相当顺利地
  Wonderfully well好极了
  Know full(y) well完全清楚
  Work quite hard工作相当努力
  Run pretty fast跑得相当快
  Speak exceedingly well讲得极好
  Act quite right做得完全对
  Do it very quickly干得很快
  常见的此类副词主要有:
  Absolutely完全地
  Almost几乎
  Amazingly令人惊异地
  Enormously非常地
  Enough充足地
  Entirely完全地
  Extremely极端地
  Fairly相当
  Fully完全地
  Greatly很
  Largely主要地
  Little很少地
  Much很,非常
  Nearly几乎
  Pretty非常
  Quite很,非常
  Rather相当
  Really的确
  Slightly稍微地
  Surprisingly令人惊奇地
  Too太
  Totally完全地
  Very很
  Completely彻底地
  2)强调副词和程度副词很相近,有些就是程度副词。它们主要对所修饰的动词、形容词加以强调
  ①I quite agree.
  我完全同意。(动词)
  Thieves respect property;they merely wish the property to become their property that they may more perfectlyrespect it.
  盗贼尊重财产权,他们只是希望财产能变成他们的财产,这样他们可能更尊重这种权利。
  ②You're entirelywrong.
  你完全错了。(形容词)
  The food is justwonderful.
  这饭菜简直好极了。
  We failed utterlyto convince them.
  我们根本说服不了他们。
  这类副词主要有:
  Absolutely
  Completely
  Entirely
  Just
  Outright
  Perfectly
  Positively
  Purely
  Quite
  Really
  Simply
  Totally
  Truly
  Utterly
  3)much是一个特殊的程度副词,它可以
  ①修饰动词(特别是用在否定句中)
  例句:No one would talk muchin society if he only knew how often he misunderstood others.
  一个人只要知道自己常常误解被人,就不会到处议论人。
  例句:He who loses wealth loses much;he who loses a friend loses more,but he who loses courage loses all.
  失去财产的人损失很大,失去朋友的人损失更多,而失去勇气的人则失去一切。
  ②修饰形容词
  例句:I'm muchobliged to you for telling me.
  非常感谢你告诉了我。
  例句:In many problems my opinions are much different from those of the farmers,but I must owe my own knowledge to them,and also to the men who have set up this theory at first.
  在许多问题上,我和前人的意见相左,但我得到的知识应归功于他们,也归功于那些首先创立这一理论的人。
  ③和形容词或副词的比较级或最高级连用
  例句:You sing muchbetter than me.
  你比我唱得好多了。
  例句:That was muchthe best meal I've had for a long time.
  这是我好久以来吃过的最好的一顿饭了。
  例句:It is muchmore difficult to judge oneself than to judge others.
  评判自己比评判别人要难得多。
  ④和how,so,too等词连用
  例句:How muchdo you like him ?
  你喜欢他到什么程度?
  例句:I care not so muchwhat I am in the opinion of others as what I am in my own.
  我不在乎别人如何评价我,我更在乎自己对自己的看法。
  例句:Respect the child.Be not too muchhis parent.Trespass not on his solitude.
  要尊重孩子,切莫过分以家长自居,不要侵扰自己的一方天地。
  六、评论副词
  用来对主句中陈述的观点进行评论的副词称为评论副词。
  例句:Hopefullywe'll win the game.
  但愿我们能赢。
  例句:Honestly,I don't care.
  老实说,我不在乎。
  例句:Surprisingly,she doesn't know me.
  很奇怪她不认识我。
  常用的评论副词有:
  Luckily幸运
  Unluckily不幸地
  Happily幸福地
  Unhappily不幸福地
  Generally一般说来
  Fortunately幸运地
  Unfortunately不幸地
  Innocently无辜地
  Honestly诚实地说
  Roughly大体上
  Briefly简洁地
  Narrowly狭义上
  Hopefully充满希望地
  Naturally很自然地
  Broadly广义上
  Strictly严格说来
  Roughly粗略说来
  Apparently很明显
  Perhaps或许
  Probably很有可能
  Undoubtedly毫无疑问
  七、疑问副词
  疑问副词主要用来构成特殊疑问句。
  例句:Wheredo you go to school ?
  你在哪儿上学?
  例句:Whenshall we meet again ?
  我们什么时候再见面?

  例句:Whywere you absent from>  你昨天为什么旷课?
  例句:Howis your grandmother's insomnia ?
  你奶奶的失眠症好了吗?
  常用的疑问副词有:
  Where
  When
  Why
  How
  Whenever
  Wherever
  However
  八、连接副词
  连接副词的意思和词形都和疑问副词一样,但引导从句或与不定式连用。
  例句:That's whywe lost the game.
  那就是我们比赛失败的原因。(引导表语从句)
  例句:I don't know whereLucia works.
  我不知道露西亚在哪里工作。(引导宾语从句)
  例句:Wherethere is great love,there are always miracle.
  哪里有伟大的爱,哪里就有奇迹。(引导主语从句)
  例句:I can't decide whereto go for my holidays.
  我决定不了去哪里度假。(与不定式连用)
  九、关系副词
  关系副词主要用来引导定语从句。常用的关系副词有:where,when,why
  例句:The dictionary is the only place wheresuccess comes before work.
  只有在字典里,“成功”才会出现在“工作”之前。
  例句:Spring is a time whenyouth dreams and old age remembers.
  春天是青年人梦想未来和老年人缅怀过去的季节。
  例句:The reason whywe think life is so ugly is that we imagine it to be too beautiful in the past.
  现在觉得生活是那么丑恶,是因为过去把它想象得太美好了。
  十、句子副词
  1)有些副词并不修饰动词,而是整个句子,表示说话人的看法
  例句:FranklyI'm afraid your mother will be a little disappointed.
  坦率地说,我担心你妈会有点失望。
  例句:Seriouslynow,you ought to take more care of your health.
  说真的,你应当多注意身体。
  常见的这类副词有:
  Absurdly
  Admittedly
  Anyway
  Astonishingly
  Coincidently
  Curiously
  Fortunately
  Happily
  Incredibly
  Interestingly
  Ironically
  Luckily
  Miraculously
  Mysteriously
  Naturally
  Oddly
  Of course
  Paradoxically
  Presumably
  Sadly
  Significantly
  Strangely
  Surprisingly
  Unbelievably
  Understandably
  Unexpectedly
  unhappily
  2)有少数
  副词可以和enough连用,起同样的作用
  例句:He's lived in France for years,but strangely enough he can't speak a word of French.
  他在法国住了好多年,但说也奇怪,他一句法语都不会。
  例句:Surprisingly enough,even petty larceny has seldom occurred.
  说来也怪,连小偷小摸的事都很少发生。
  十一、其他副词
  除了以上这些类型的副词外,还有一些其他类型的副词。
  1)表示方向的副词
  例句:Walk three blocks and then turn left.
  走三个路段后左转。
  例句:It is true that as we take two steps forwardin our journey,we may take one or more steps backward.But when one has faith that the spring thaw will arrive,the winters winds seem to lose some of their punch.
  当我们在旅途中前进了两步的时候,我们的确可能会后退一步或几步。但是当我们确信春天解冻的时刻快要来了的时候,冬天的风也好像少了几分寒意。
  2)使与上文连接更紧密的副词
  例句:Nevertheless,she decided to act.
  尽管如此,她决定采取行动。
  例句:The rain was heavy-consequently the land was flooded.
  雨下得很大,因此土地被淹了。
  3)表示“方面”的副词
  例句:It's politicallyshort-sighted not to recognize this.
  不认识这一点在政治上是短视的。
  例句:In economicallyadvanced countries,childbearing typically begins later in life.
  在经济发达的国家,人们要孩子一般比较晚。
  例句:The present is morallyopposed to capital punishment.
  总统从道义上反对死刑。
  4)表示上下文之间关系的副词
  Therefore因此(表结果)
  Moreover再者(表补充)
  Besides况且(表补充)
  However不管怎样(表转折)
  Otherwise否则(表条件)
  Then然后(表时间)
  Though但是(表转折,用于句尾,其前有逗号隔开)
  几组同根副词的意义比较:
  Hard努力
  Hardly几乎不
  Near附近
  Nearly几乎
  High高
  Highly高度地
  Most大多数
  Mostly多部分地
  Deep深入地
  Deeply深深地
  Close靠近
  Closely密切地
  Late迟到
  Lately最近,近来
  Wide张得大大地
  Widely广泛地
  另外,其他副词还包括yes,no,certainly,surely,sure,really,how等。How可作感叹副词,构成感叹句。
  以上就是“副词的种类”的内容,咱们一定要结合例句学习句法和语法,这样更容易理解和实操英语!
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